Publication in Economics, Politics and Public Policy in East Asia and the Pacific

Mongolia’s flagging economy stalls political progress

Author: Julian Dierkes, UBC

2015 marked the 25th anniversary of Mongolia’s democratic revolution. So after 25 years of democracy, where does Mongolia stand? And, what role does Asia’s only post-state socialist democracy play internationally? Read more…

Mongolia’s rocky travails of mineral wealth

Author: Jargalsaikhan Mendee, UBC

Having held its first multi-party election in 1990, Mongolia is a democratic outpost in a tough authoritarian neighbourhood. Thus the country enjoys a wide spectrum of political and economic support from developed democracies. Political power has been transferred peacefully between two contending political parties, civil and political rights are respected and public discontent is freely expressed. Read more…

Can human security help reframe governance in Asia?

Author: Akiko Fukushima, Aoyama Gakuin University

Seventy years ago, the global governance institutions of the United Nations, World Bank, and IMF were created. They have certainly contributed to peace and enabling global economic and financial growth. But the global environment has undergone an immense evolution since then. Read more…

Can freedom go online in Asia?

Authors: Julian Dierkes, Trevor Kennedy, Melanie Schweiger and Christina Toepell, UBC

The Asian members of the Freedom Online Coalition (FOC) have announced their love of freedom and willingness to guarantee freedom online. But the reality is that there is a disconnect between stated ambitions and commitments, and actual policy. Read more…

Mongolia’s economic prospects turn sour from external pressures

Author: Tuvshintugs Batdelger, National University of Mongolia

Mongolia experienced drastic changes in its macroeconomic environment in 2014.

The economy is expected to grow by 7 per cent in 2014. This is a healthy pace. But the majority of this growth has come from the mining sector, which experienced a significant boost from the production ramp up in the first phase of the Oyu Tolgoi project. Read more…

Mongolia’s unexpected 2014

Author: Julian Dierkes, UBC

It was meant to be a relatively quiet year for Mongolia. There were no parliamentary or presidential elections and most observers expected that some of the economic troubles Mongolia has been facing would be resolved. But the year brought foreign policy turmoil and a continuing economic crisis, and is now ending amidst domestic political chaos. Read more…

Let’s not misread Mongolia’s supposed ‘rebalance’ to Russia and China

Author: Jeffrey Reeves, APCSS

The close timing of Chinese president Xi Jinping’s and Russian president Vladimir Putin’s recent visits has led a number of analysts to claim Mongolia has abandoned its ‘Third Neighbour’ diplomacy — a long-held policy to build relations with non-border countries — for a consortium with Beijing and Moscow. Pointing to Mongolia’s uneven economic relations with Beijing, dependence on Russian oil and gas imports and slowing growth, these analysts argue that Mongolia has ‘rebalanced’ to China and Russia out of necessity. Read more…

Some lessons from Mongolian diplomacy

Author: Peter Drysdale, Editor, East Asia Forum

Mongolia might seem like an odd vantage point from which to view the travails associated with China’s rise. But the history, from Genghis Khan to the present day, and circumstance of Mongolian relations with its giant neighbour is replete with experience that might sensibly inform the conduct of relations between China and its neighbours around the South China Sea and to the east. Read more…

Mongolia’s confident new strategy towards prosperity

Author: Luvsanvandan Bold, Minister for Foreign Affairs, Mongolia

Mongolia’s ancestors were risk-takers who built the largest contiguous land empire in world history ranging from the Korean Peninsula to Poland, including the Middle East and Southern China. They ruled this vast territory and countless peoples wisely. During the period of the Mongol Empire, now referred to as Pax Mongolica, trade between the West and the East flourished through the famous Silk Road Read more…

Mongolian foreign policy: a small state with big aspirations

Author: Jargalsaikhan Enkhsaikhan, Blue Banner, UN

Mongolia is a relative newcomer in contemporary world politics.

The end of the cold war, the normalisation of Sino–Russian and Sino–Mongolian relations, as well as fundamental changes in Mongolia itself, have changed the country’s geopolitical environment and paved the way for Mongolia to enter international politics. Read more…

Mongolia’s economic prospects and challenges

Author: Tuvshintugs Batdelger, National University of Mongolia

In recent years Mongolia has become one of the most rapidly expanding economies in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit, it was one of the top performers in 2013, with economic growth of 11.7 per cent, and it is projected to be the second top-performing economy in 2014, only after South Sudan (about 15 per cent). Read more…

Mongolia in the region: time for economic foreign policy

Author: Julian Dierkes, UBC

Mongolia has been extraordinarily successful in building a foreign policy around the Leitmotiv of ‘third neighbours’ for the past 20 years. Reinforced by the country’s democratisation and the promise of mineral resources, this foreign policy has helped Mongolia claim much more attention on the global stage than one might expect from a vast country of only three million inhabitants. Read more…

Japan’s Mongolian connection in North Korea

Authors: Julian Dierkes, UBC and Otgonbaatar Byambaa, Waseda

President Ts Elbegdorj of Mongolia became the first head of state to visit North Korea since Kim Jong-un came to power, even though initial reports suggest that the two leaders did not meet.

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has staked a great deal of political capital on his commitment to resolve the issue of the North Korean abductions of Japanese citizens. Read more…

The steppes to the States

Author: Brandon Miliate, Indiana University 

Mongolia is determined to defeat geographic destiny and escape the influence of Russia and China.

Since 1990, it has pursued a multidirectional foreign policy, forging strong ties with such global players as the United States, the EU, Japan, South Korea and India. Read more…

Mongolia’s evolving foreign investment regime

Author: Julian Dierkes, UBC

In April 2012, Chinese miner Chalco launched a takeover bid for South Gobi Resources.

The bid prompted the Mongolian parliament to pass a new foreign investment law distinguishing between bids made by private companies and bids made by state-owned enterprises (SOE) and introducing monetary thresholds for different kinds of reviews. Read more…